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CERES/ARM Validation Experiment (CAVE)
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The image below locates the 84 surface sites where surface observations are made available for comparison to CERES SYN-1Degree surface data product. White diamonds are defined as 'land' (includes islands) and blue diamonds are instruments mounted on buoys.

File Availability for Site:


CAVE surface observations consist of radiometric, meteorological, and aerosol observations taken at a number of sites around the globe.  Data are generously made available through a number of organizations and should these data be used for publications those organizations should be acknowledged (see 'Referencing CAVE data'.) The original time resolution of most surface observations is 1 minute. Data available here are averaged to a minimum of 1 hour for comparisons with the CERES SYN-1Degree data products. The files may contain the following variables:

    Surface Irradiance Observations* with Matching SYN-1Deg Calculations
  • Shortwave Irradiance Down (Unshaded Global)
  • Shortwave Irradiance Down (Total: Direct + Diffuse)
  • Shortwave Direct Normal Down
  • Shortwave Diffuse Down
  • Shortwave Irradiance Up
  • Longwave Irradiance Down
  • Longwave Irradiance Up
    Surface Meteorological Observations* with Matching SYN-1Deg Variables
  • Aerosol Optical Depth at 500nm
  • Cloud Fraction (%)
    Surface Meteorological Observations* without Matching SYN-1Deg Variables
  • Cosine Solar Zenith Angle
  • Surface Air Temperature (oK)
  • Surface Pressure (hPa)
  • Surface Wind Speed (m/s)
  • Surface Wind Direction (Degrees)
  • Surface Relative Humidity (%)
  • Precipitable Water
    (*Variables are listed for all surface sites to keep files uniform. Many surface sites do not include all of the above variables.)

Temporal averaging methodology

    First: One minute data is averaged to 15 minutes.
  • Irradiance requires a minimum of 7 observations to create a 15 minute value.
  • SW fluxes where cos(SZA) < -0.06 are set to 0.0.
  • Meteorological (and aerosol) variables require only 1 observation for a 15min value.
    Second: Data gaps filled using interpolation of 15 minute average data.
  • Gaps must be less than 4 hours.
  • Different fluxes are interpolated differently.
    • LW Down: linear fit
    • LW Up: linear fit to flux**0.25
    • SW Flux: linear fit to transmission
    • Meteorology: linear fit
    • Cloud fraction & Aerosol Optical Depths are not interpolated.
    Hourly, 3-Hourly, Daily Averages & Monthly Mean
  • All averages are to the middle of a respective time period. eg. Average for hour 0 is an average +/-30 minutes of 0:30.
  • 1 and 3 hour averages calculated from 15 minute data.
  • Daily average calculated using hourly averaged data.
  • Monthly/hourly diurnal cycle calculated from hour data record.
  • Monthly mean calculated from monthly/hourly diurnal cycle.
    • Files contain the number of values that go into each average.
    • For the monthly mean, the percentage of hours used in creating the monthly mean diurnal cycle is given as the measure for the quality of the monthly average.
    • For example, given 744 hours in 31 days, if 3 days are missing the measure given for the monthly mean is:

    (744 - 72)
    ---------- * 100 = 90.3

Available Sites

Current surface observation files available for comparison to SYN-1Deg are listed from North to South latitude in the following table. Each site is accorded a 3-letter identifier following the BSRN list where possible. More data and sites are available from the original data sources than are given here.

3-Letter IDLong Name Location Lat/Lon
ALE(1)Alert, Canada Polar, NE Canada 82.49, 297.58
NYA(1)Ny Alesund, Norway Polar, Island/Coast 78.93, 11.93
HMB(10)Humboldt Glacier, Greenland Polar, Greenland Glacier 78.53, 303.17
TIK(1)Tiksi, Russia Polar, Tundra 71.59, 128.92
GRS(9)Greenland Summit, Greenland Polar, Greenland Glacier 72.57, 321.52
NSA(2)Barrow, AK Polar, Alaska, US 71.32, 203.39
BAR(1)Barrow, AK Polar, Alaska, US 71.32, 203.39
SDL(10)Saddle Glacier, Greenland Polar, Greenland Glacier 66.00, 315.50
TOR(1)Toravere, Estonia Rural, Grassland 58.25, 26.46
LIN(1)Lindenberg, Germany Rural, Cropland 52.21, 14.12
CAB(1)Cabau, Netherlands Northern Europe 51.97, 4.93
REG(1)Regina, Canada Rural, Cropland 50.21, 255.29
FPK(3)Fort Peck, MT Rural, Grassland 48.31, 254.90
PAY(1)Payerne, Switzerland Hilly, Cropland 46.82, 6.94
CAR(1)Carpentras, France Central Europe 44.08, 5.06
SXF(3)Sioux Falls, SD Rural, Cropland 43.73, 263.38
SAP(1)Sapporo, Japan Urban 43.06, 141.33
CNR(1)CENER, Spain Pamplona, Spain 42.82, 358.40
PSU(3)Penn State, PA Rural, Hilly 40.72, 282.07
BOS(3)Boulder, CO (Table Mountain) Rural, Mountains 40.13, 254.76
BOU(1)Boulder Tower, Colorado, USA High Plains, Central US 40.05, 254.99
BON(3)Bondville, IL Rural, Cropland 40.05, 271.63
XIA(1)Xiang, China Desert, Rural 39.75, 116.96
E09(2)Ashton, Kansas, USA Great Plains, Central US 37.13, 262.73
CLH(1)Chesapeake Lighthouse, Virginia, USAOcean, East Coast US 36.90, 284.29
E11(2)Byron, Oklahoma, USA Great Plains, Central US 36.88, 261.72
E12(2)Pawhuska, Oklahoma, USA Great Plains, Central US 36.84, 263.57
DRA(3)Desert Rock, NV Desert, Hilly 36.63, 243.98
BEF(2)ARM/SGP Central Facility (Best Est. Flux)Great Plains, Central US 36.61, 262.52
C01(2)ARM/SGP Central Facility C01 Great Plains, Central US 36.61, 262.52
E13(2)ARM/SGP Central Facility Lamont, OK Great Plains, Central US 36.61, 262.52
E15(2)Ringwood, Oklahoma, USA Great Plains, Central US 36.43, 261.72
TAT(1)Tateno, Japan Urban 36.05, 140.13
E20(2)Meeker, Oklahoma, USA Great Plains, Central US 35.56, 263.01
GCR(3)Goodwin Creek, MS Rural, Cropland 34.25, 270.13
FUA(1)Fukuoka, Japan Urban Landscape 33.58, 130.38
BER(1)Bermuda N Atlantic Ocean, Island 32.30, 295.23
SBO(1)Sede Boqer, Israel Desert, Hilly 30.86, 34.78
IZA(1)Izana, Tenerife Island Spain Mountain Top, E Atlantic 28.31, 343.50
SOV(1)Saudi Solar Village Desert 24.91, 46.41
ISH(1)Ishigakijima, Japan Rural Japan 24.34, 124.16
MNM(1)Minamitorishima, Japan Island, West Pacific 24.29, 153.98
TAM(1)Tamanrasset, Algeria Desert, Hilly 22.79, 5.53
KWA(1)Kwajalein Island Island Atoll, Tropical Pacific 8.72, 167.73
NAU(2)Nauru Island Tropical West Pacific -0.52, 166.92
MAN(2)Manus Island Tropical West Pacific -2.06, 147.43
PTR(1)Petrolina, Brazil Rural -9.07, 319.68
COC(1)Cocos Island Tropical Indian Ocean -12.19, 96.83
DWN(1)Darwin, Australia Tropical West Pacific -12.42, 130.89
DAR(2)Darwin, Australia Tropical West Pacific -12.43, 130.89
SAM(8)Samoa, US Island, Tropical Pacific -14.25, 189.44
ASP(1)Alice Springs, Australia Desert, Central Australia-23.80, 133.89
SMS(1)Sao Martinho da Serra, Brazil Rural -29.44, 306.18
DAA(1)De Aar, South Africa Grassland, S Africa -30.67, 24.00
LAU(1)Lauder, New Zealand Rural, Cropland -45.05, 169.69
SYO(1)Syowa, Antarctica Antarctic Coast -69.00, 39.59
GVN(1)Georg von Neumayer, Antarctica Antarctic Coast -70.65, 351.75
DOM(1)Dome C, Antarctica Antarctic Plateau -75.10, 123.38
SPO(1)South Pole, Antarctica Antarctic Plateau -89.99, 0.00
Ocean Buoy Sites Long Name Location Lat/Lon
HTS(4)Hawaii Time Series Buoy Tropical Pacific 22.77, 202.10
NTS(4)NTAS Buoy N Tropical Alantic 14.50, 309.00
STR(4)Stratus Buoy Stratus Region, SE Pacific-20.20, 274.80
PBC(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical N Atlantic 14.99, 321.99
PBD(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical N Atlantic 11.50, 321.98
PBJ(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical Atlantic 0.00, 325.00
PBK(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical Atlantic 0.00, 337.00
PBL(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical Atlantic 0.02, 350.10
PBM(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical Atlantic 0.01, 0.02
PBP(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical S Atlantic -6.02, 350.00
PBS(5)PIRATA Buoy Tropical S Atlantic -9.94, 350.02
TBA(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific 8.00, 165.09
TBD(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific 5.03, 165.01
TBF(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific 2.00, 164.99
TBI(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific 0.02, 165.07
TBJ(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific -0.03, 189.94
TBK(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific 0.02, 220.07
TBL(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific -0.17, 235.62
TBM(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific 0.00, 250.01
TBQ(6)TAO Buoy Tropical Pacific -5.00, 165.18
RBA(7)RAMA Buoy Tropical Indian Ocean 15.00, 90.00
RBC(7)RAMA Buoy Tropical Indian Ocean 8.02, 89.00
RBF(7)RAMA Buoy Tropical Indian Ocean 0.06, 80.57
RBG(7)RAMA Buoy Tropical Indian Ocean 0.04, 89.84
RBK(7)RAMA Buoy Tropical Indian Ocean -8.00, 80.47